Speakers

Ana Carolina Aguerri Borges das Silva

Ana Carolina Aguerri Borges das Silva est une sociologue brésilienne. Elle fait actuellement un post-doctorat à l’Observatório Luso Brasileiro de Desigualdades e Políticas Públicas (ODEPP) de l’Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE-Brésil). Elle a fait un master en sociologie et un doctorat en sciences sociales à l’Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP-Brésil). Sa recherche est tournée vers les domaines de la sociologie environnementale et la sociologie rurale, principalement sur les thèmes suivants: la politique environnementale brésilienne, les mouvements écologiques, l’inégalité dans l’accès à l’eau et les conflits pour l’eau dans le nord-est brésilien.

María Teresa Alarcón Herrera

María Teresa Alarcón Herrera est enseignante-chercheuse en ingénierie environnementale, spécialisée sur le traitement de l’eau au Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Durango. Elle est également responsable de l’unité CIMAV de Durango au Mexique. Ses travaux de recherche et ses actions portent sur l’analyse et la réduction des vulnérabilités liées à l’eau dans les zones arides et semi-arides, en particulier en présence de contaminants naturels comme le fluor ou l’arsenic présents dans les aquifères, afin de préconiser des traitements ou aider les communautés dans l’adoption d’énergie alternative. Elle est actuellement responsable du projet PCP/RU2I Réseau Universitaire pour l’Innovation Industrielle Mexique «Vulnérabilités, résilience et transition liées à l’accès à l’eau : acceptabilité sociale et faisabilité des transferts de technologie (aux interfaces des espaces agricoles irrigués et des zones péri-urbaines) (Chihuahua/Puebla – Mexique) » 2013-2018. Elle vient par ailleurs d’être nommée responsable technique du Consortium de l’Eau pour 6 centres du CONACYT.

Alexandra Angéliaume-Descamps

Alexandra Angéliaume-Descamps est enseignante-chercheuse au laboratoire de recherche GEODE Géographie de l’Environnement UMR 5602 CNRS et au Département de Géographie Aménagement Environnement. Ses travaux de recherche portent sur les espaces ruraux et les zones humides, sur les thématiques des espaces protégés, des vulnérabilités liées à l’eau, de l’acceptation sociale des dispositifs de gestion, sur des terrains du sud-ouest de la France et d’Amérique latine (Venezuela, Colombie, Mexique. Elle est actuellement co-responsable du projet PCP/RU2I Réseau Universitaire pour l’Innovation Industrielle Mexique «vulnérabilités, résilience et transition liées à l’accès à l’eau : acceptabilité sociale et  faisabilité des transferts de technologie (aux interfaces des espaces agricoles irrigués et des zones péri-urbaines) (Chihuahua/Puebla – Mexique) » 2013-2018.

Rutgerd Boelens

Rutgerd Boelens is Professor ‘Water Governance and Social Justice’ at Wageningen University; Professor ‘Political Ecology of Water in Latin America’ with CEDLA, University of Amsterdam; and Visiting Professor at the Catholic University of Peru and the Central University of Ecuador. He directs the international Justicia Hídrica/ Water Justice alliance (www.justiciahidrica.org). His research focuses on political ecology, water rights, legal pluralism, cultural politics, governmentality, and social mobilization. Among his latest books are “Water Justice” (with Perreault & Vos, Cambridge University Press, 2018), “Water, Power and Identity. The Cultural Politics of Water in the Andes” (Routledge, 2015) and “Out of the Mainstream: Water Rights, Politics and Identity” (with Getches & Guevara-Gil, Earthscan, 2010).

Sarah Botton

Sociologue, Sarah Botton s’est spécialisée sur l’étude de l’action publique. Qui sont les acteurs qui façonnent les politiques publiques et de quelle manière ? Existe-t-il des modalités d’organisation spécifiques à certains secteurs ?Au fil de son parcours, Sarah Botton a étudié le fonctionnement du secteur de l’eau à différentes échelles. Elle s’est, par exemple, intéressée à l’impact de la privatisation de l’eau sur les populations les plus défavorisées, ainsi qu’aux partenariats publics-privés (PPP) dans ce domaine. Elle s’est concentrée pour cela sur différents pays : l’Argentine, la Bolivie et le Maroc. Elle a également étudié les petites délégations de services publics confiées à des opérateurs informels dans certaines villes ou quartiers, en Asie du Sud-Est et en Afrique. Elle a par ailleurs travaillé sur l’accès des plus pauvres aux services de base dans les villes en développement : l’eau, l’électricité et les transports. Sarah Botton a consacré sa thèse de doctorat à la privatisation des services urbains et ses conséquences sur la pauvreté à Buenos Aires, elle l’a obtenue en 2005 de l’Université Paris-Est. Elle a ensuite mené des travaux de recherche dans le domaine du développement auprès de différents acteurs : académiques, institutionnels, privés et associatifs (IRD, CNRS, ENPC, Engref, Unesco, AFD, Suez, EDF, Iddri, GRET). Entrée à l’AFD en 2009, elle a d’abord conduit des programmes de formation sur les services urbains. Sarah Botton est désormais chargée de recherche, elle pilote notamment les programmes portant sur la sociologie de l’action politique et la gouvernance sectorielle.

Elise Boutié

Issue du cinéma documentaire, Elise Boutié est aujourd’hui doctorante en anthropologie sociale à l’EHESS, sous la direction de Birgit Müller. Ses recherches portent sur l’usage et la gestion de l’eau dans le désert californien, territoire de l’agro-industrie extractiviste. Tandis que son travail de master retraçait l’histoire de la propriété privée dans la région en posant la question du paysage en tant que bien commun, son projet de thèse entend désormais interroger la notion d’épuisement des ressources en comparant d’une part une vallée où la gouvernance de l’eau est en train de s’inventer et d’autre part une ville où l’absence de gestion commune a conduit à l’assèchement de l’aquifère. Son approche emprunte autant à l’anthropologie environnementale qu’à l’anthropologie de la catastrophe.

Juan E. Cabrera

Arquitecto y sociólogo de la Universidad Mayor de San Simón de Bolivia. Doctor en urbanismo de la Universidad de Liege en Bélgica. En la actualidad desarrolla su investigación pos-doctoral vinculado con el proyecto (TYCO-WSS) en las Universidades Libre de Bruselas y Liege. Profesor de urbanismo, planificación urbana y taller de investigación en la Universidad Mayor de San Simón y en la Universidad Privada Boliviana de Cochabamba. En esta última, es también director del Centro de Investigaciones en Arquitectura y Urbanismo desde el año 2016. Sus temas de intereses científico giran alrededor de la auto gestión del agua, la fragmentación urbana, los mercados inmobiliarios, la informalidad y la movilidad. 

Inés Calvo Valenzuela

Inés Calvo Valenzuela est inscrite en thèse d’anthropologie à l’EHESS/LAS depuis octobre 2015. Sa thèse s’intitule « Pulowi et le capitalisme industriel : les changements culturels wayuu au prisme de l’extraction minière dans la Guajira colombienne ». Dans le cadre de cette recherche, elle a réalisé une ethnographie de longue durée (20 mois) entre le nord et le sud de La Guajira colombienne sur laquelle elle s’appuiera pour présenter cette communication.

Carine Chavarochette

Carine Chavarochette is anthropologist, asociate reserchear at CREDA CNRS UMR 7227. Through the study of the political and social context of water management in peri-urban and rural areas, the objective is to identify the people perception of water and its control, the beliefs surrounding this element as well as the different ritual devices implemented around aquifers. She has collaborated on several international research programs (CONACyT México-CIESAS Sureste México-UCR Costa Rica-ART-Dev UMR 5281-UMI 3157 Iglobe Tucson).

Lara Côrtes

Lara Côrtes is a Brazilian lawyer currently working as a post-doctoral researcher at the Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) for the project Elevating Water Rights to Human Rights: Has it strengthened marginalized peoples’ claim for water? and affiliated to the Centre on Law and Social Transformation. Côrtes has a PhD in Law from the University of São Paulo and a Master from São Paulo Law School of Fundação Getulio in Brazil. Based in Norway since 2012, her previous experience at CMI has involved participation in several projects within the institute’s Angola Programme. She has also been attached to the University of Bergen (UiB), first with a temporary position as associate professor for the course Brazilian studies and Portuguese language, and later as a researcher for the project POLAME: Poverty, Language and Media: the cases of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico.

Joan Cortinas Muñoz

Joan Cortinas Muñoz is a researcher in sociology. He is specialized in the study of public policy related to social and environmental issues. In his PhD dissertation he worked on the construction of policies aiming to fight against poverty in Spain in 1980’s. Afterwards, he was involved in several research projects dealing with health inequalities in France. Since 2014 he is working on water policies undertook in Western United States to fight against drought. His approach on public policy combines a bottom-down approach with a top-down one. For that he focuses on structural processes shaping public policy: institutional architectures of political arenas, professional and personal profiles of people involved in the elaboration of a public policy and resources of these actors, and in micro-structural elements related to the actors and arenas in charge of the implementation of the public policy. In that sense, he combines quantitative (multi-correspondace analysis, prosopography) and qualitative (ethnography, archives) research methods. He has published several articles in international peer-reviewed scientific journals in Europe and America and is preparing two books on drought responses in Western United States.

Ludovic Drapier

Ludovic Drapier est doctorant en géographie au Laboratoire de Géographie Physique UMR CNRS 8591. Sa thèse propose une comparaison des dimensions institutionnelles et sociales des projets de démantèlement d’ouvrages en travers dans l’Ouest de la France (Normandie) et le Nord-Est des Etats-Unis (Nouvelle-Angleterre et New Jersey). Ses recherches portent notamment sur la façon dont ces projets reconfigurent les relations entre les riverains et les cours d’eau, à la fois dans des situations conflictuelles et non conflictuelles. La comparaison permet de mettre en lumière l’existence d’une politique publique de restauration de la continuité écologique dans les deux pays et une difficulté à intégrer à la réflexion les résidents dans les deux pays malgré une relation différente au(x) territoire(s) de la part des porteurs de projets.

Ana Gendron

Ana Gendron est docteur en anthropologie, et chercheuse associée au Centre de Recherche sur l’Amérique Latine (CREDA). Elle est membre de l’association des Andes (INALCO-Paris), où elle organise des événements culturels, artistiques et scientifiques pour la diffusion des langues et cultures des Amériques. Elle est également membre du Centres d’études américanistes “Circolo Amerindiano à Pérouse (Italie), de la société des Américanistes à Paris, et de l’Association d’Anthropologues Ibéro-Américains (AIBR) en Espagne.

Camila Gianella Malca

Camila Gianella Malca has a degree on Psychology, a Master of Sciences on International Health, and a PhD on Psychology. She is currently a researcher at CMI, Global Fellow at the Centre on Law and Social Transformation, and professor at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. During her professional career, Gianella has worked as researcher and consultant for projects on the right to health, transitional justice, indigenous peoples’ rights, and the right to water. She is a part of several projects tied to the Centre on Law and Social Transformation, looking for the strategies, and effects of economic, social and cultural rights legal mobilization, hereby Elevating water rights to human rights: Has it strengthened marginalized peoples’ claim for water? and Political determinants of sexual and reproductive health: Criminalization health impacts and game changers.

Joshua Greene

Joshua Greene is a PhD student at the University of Geneva, where he works on the Water, Sanitation and Financial Inclusion (WATSIN) project. His research focus is on access to safe, affordable water, and he specifically looks at the impact of water expenses, water scarcity and water contamination on the lives of the most vulnerable. He also directs a water development project in rural Mexico, working with small communities to find solutions these same issues.

Kyra Grieco

Kyra Grieco es doctora en Antropología (2018) por l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Socials (EHESS) de París. Miembro del CERMA/Mondes Américains (UMR 8168), ha impartido cursos en el Institut des Hautes Etudes de l’Amérique Latine (IHEAL), en el Institut d’Etudes Politiques (IEP-SciencesPo) de Paris, en la Universidad Paris 5 – René Descartes y en la American University of Paris (AUP). Sus temas de investigación son las relaciones de genero, étnicas y de clase en contextos de extracción minera, su representación visual y politización.

Alvaro Martín Gutierrez-Malaxechebaría

Alvaro Martín GUTIERREZ-MALAXECHEBARÍA est professeur à la Facultad de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales et coordinateur de l’Unidad de Investigación Facultad del Medio Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales de l’Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas de Bogotá. Ses travaux de recherche portent sur la gestion de l’eau dans les espaces ruraux et l’efficience des systèmes d’irrigation dans les Andes. Il est actuellement responsable du projet “Estrategias para sostenibilidad del recurso hídrico en la relación comunidad-parque nacional Chingaza 2018-2019” en relation avec l’alimentation en eau de la ville de Bogotá.

Edith Kauffer

She holds a Ph.D. in Political Science (Aix-Marseille University, 1997) and is a Senior Researcher at CIESAS (Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social) -Sureste, Mexico. Former coordinator of the researchers’ water network on the border between Mexico, Guatemala and Belize (RISAF) (2003-2016), co-coordinator of the Comparative Research on Regional Integration and Social Cohesion Consortium (RISC) working group on Management of Strategic Resources, Environment and Society. She is also associate editor of the Journal Regions & Cohesion (Berghahn Journals) and was the representative of CIESAS at the consultative council of Diplomatic Historical Documentary Archive of the Mexican Minister of Exterior Relations between 2013 and 2017. She conducts research on transboundary waters and river basins, water policy and politics, gender and water in Southern Mexico, Northern Central America and the Mediterranean.

Patrick Laigneau

Ingénieur en hydraulique, j’ai travaillé comme chargé d’études à l’agence de l’eau Rhône-Méditerranée-Corse et comme conseiller technique au ministère de l’eau du Burkina-Faso avant d’entreprendre des études en anthropologie au Brésil. Ma recherche de master a concerné la participation des représentants indigènes dans les comités de bassins au Brésil, celle de doctorat l’histoire des agences et comités de bassin en France vue depuis le Brésil. J’ai y adopté une approche théorique d’anthropologie politique située dans la continuité du perspectivisme amérindien d’Eduardo Viveiros de Castro. Je travaille actuellement comme consultant et chercheur indépendant entre la France, le Brésil et l’Argentine, principalement sur les pratiques de gestion par bassin-versant plus ou moins inspirées par l’expérience française. En collaboration avec les chercheurs Rosa Formiga-Johnsson au Brésil et Bernard Barraqué en France, j’explore, dans différentes publications, les possibilités et limites offertes par les théories de communs pour comprendre les tensions liées à l’institutionnalisation de dynamiques collectives à différentes échelles territoriales, des deux côtés de l’Atlantique. Je termine également un ouvrage sur l’histoire du Syndicat national de l’environnement en France, dont le premier tome a été publié en 2014.

Robin Larsimont

Robin Larsimont est chercheur postdoctorant au Centro Científico Tecnológico CONICET de Mendoza (Argentine). Il est titulaire d’un Doctorat en Géographie à l’Université de Buenos Aires (UBA), d’un Master en Aménagement et Gestión du Développement Territorial Local à l’Université de Séville (US) et d’un second master en Sciences Géographiques à l’université libre de Bruxelles (ULB). Ses travaux, influencés par le matérialisme historico-géographique et l’écologie politique, portent sur les processus d’accaparement de terres et d’eaux dans l’ouest aride de l’Argentine.

Jade Latargère

Jade Latargère est docteure en géographie, chercheure associée au Centre d’Etudes Mexicaines et Centreaméricaines (CEMCA-USR 3337 América Latina). Elle vient de soutenir sa thèse de doctorat, travail dans lequel elle montre que les conflits sur l’eau au Mexique n’expriment pas uniquement une demande d’accès à l’eau, mais aussi des revendications d’ordre patrimonial. Elle est diplômée de l’Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences-Po Paris) et a réalisé un Master en Etudes Environnementales et Urbaines au Colegio de Mexico, à Mexico. Elle a publié des articles sur différentes thématiques environnementales au Mexique (infrastructures de traitement des déchets, aires naturelles protégées, paysages d’eau) et a participé à plusieurs programmes de recherche internationaux (Projet Descri sur les conflits suscités par les infrastructures de traitement des déchets ; projet Bluegrass sur les conflits d’eau dans les Amériques). En attendant de trouver un post-doctorat ou un poste de chercheur universitaire, elle travaille au Mexique comme consultante indépendante pour des ONG sur les questions d’eau, d’assainissement et d’environnement.

Claude Le Gouill

Claude Le Gouill est chercheur associé au centre de Recherche et de Documentation des Amériques (CREDA- UMR7227) et à l’Observatoire Hommes-Milieux Pima County (Unité Mixte Internationale iGLOBES-CNRS/University of Arizona). Il a soutenu sa thèse en 2013 à l’Institut des Hautes Etudes de l’Amérique Latine (IHEAL-Paris3). Après avoir publié plusieurs articles sur les conflits identitaires et politiques dans les Andes boliviennes, ses recherches s’orientent sur les conflits environnementaux et les communs dans les Amériques, avec une perspective socio-économique globale et comparative.

Amaël Marchand

Titulaire du master Pratiques de l’Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Sociales cohabilitées par l’École Normale Supérieure et l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Amaël Marchand est actuellement doctorant en sociologie au Laboratoire Technique Territoire et Société. Son travail de thèse développe une approche multiniveau des conflits pour l’eau au Mexique, depuis l’inscription locale et matérielle des crises hydriques périurbaines jusqu’aux controverses nationales concernant les modèles de gestion et le cadre normatif. Il a également contribué à l’enquête collective internationale sur les conflits pour l’eau dans les Amériques au sein du réseau de l’ANR Bluegrass.

Liber Martin

Liber Martin is Professor of public and water law at the University of Cuyo/Mendoza (Argentina) and Researcher at the National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET). Former FMSH visiting Scholar at Université Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne (2011), University of Arizona (2012) and University of California, Berkeley Law (2015). He got his PhD from the University of Zaragoza (2009) and authored many books, journal articles and papers on comparative water law and policy, water rights and private property rights, water public utilities, natural resources and environmental law.

Rodrigo Martins

Rodrigo Martins est sociologue, spécialisé en sociologie environnementale. Il a fait un post-doctorat à l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) de Paris, et a été chercheur invité de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme de Paris dans le cadre du programme Hermès. Au Brésil, il est professeur dans le département de sociologie et du programme de doctorat en sociologie de l’Université fédérale de São Carlos. Il est également chercheur au Conseil National de la recherche brésilien (CNPq). Ses travaux portent sur les conflits d’accès à l’eau dans les territoires ruraux au Brésil.

Lucile Medina

Lucile Medina est maître de conférences en géographie à l’Université Paul Valéry Montpellier 3 et membre de l’UMR 5281 ART-Dev et du LMI MESO. Ses recherches portent sur les dynamiques de développement des espaces frontaliers en Amérique latine, et plus spécifiquement en Amérique centrale : interactions socio-économiques (migrations, identités), conflits, politiques de développement et de coopérations transfrontalières.

Birgit Müller

Birgit Müller (PhD Cambridge 1986) est directrice de recherche au l’IIAC / LAIOS (CNRS/EHESS) à Paris. Ses recherches actuelles explorent la manière dont les agriculteurs, les sols et les semences s’inscrivent dans les nouvelles conjonctures mondiales de la ClimateSmartAgriculture — c’est à dire dans l’élaboration de politiques agricoles privées et publiques par les États, les entreprises et par un large éventail d’organisations internationales intergouvernementales et non gouvernementales. Ses terrain: le Canada, le Nicaragua, la France et très récemment la Californie. Parmi ses livres: Disenchantment with Market Economics. Allemands de l’Est et capitalisme occidental (2008), The Gloss of Harmony. La politique d’élaboration des politiques dans les organisations multilatérales (2013).

Nilo Nascimento

Nilo Nascimiento is Civil Engineer graduated from the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), in Brazil, in 1982. He holds a Master’s degree in applied hydrology from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland (1985) and a doctorate in environmental sciences from the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC), France (1995). He is full professor at the Department of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering of UFMG. He has 22 years of research experience on urban drainage, with focus on flood studies, sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) and more recently on blue and green infrastructure. He has lead researches on those topics funded domestically, by the European Union and by bilateral cooperation frameworks (France, the UK, Argentina). He served as Deputy Director of International Relations of UFMG between 2012 and 2014 and as Head of the UFMG Graduate Programme on Sanitation, Environment and Water Resources from 2015 to 2018. He has been member of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage (2006-2012). He is member of the editorial board of the Urban Water Journal.

Chloé Nicolas-Artero

Chloé Nicolas-Artero is following a PHD in Geography at Institut des hautes études sur l’Amerique latine (IHEAL). She graduated from Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Toulouse (2013) and she has a Master Degree in Geography (2015) from IHEAL. Since 2016, she has taught at the Université Sorbonne-Nouvelle Paris III and the IHEAL. Her PhD dissertation attempts to explain the impacts of the expansion of capitalism on water user organizations in Chile, from a geographical and historical perspective.

Pablo Ortiz

Sociólogo ecuatoriano. Máster CC.Políticas y PhD en Estudios Culturales Latinoamericanos. Profesor e investigador universitario. Director del Grupo de Investigación Estado y Desarrollo (GIEDE) y Director de la Carrera de Gestión para el Desarrollo Local de la Universidad Politécnica Salesiana de Quito, Ecuador. Como investigador labora en torno a: derechos colectivos de pueblos indígenas; procesos de autogestión territorial y autodeterminación indígena en los Andes y Amazonía; y tratamiento participativo de conflictos socioambientales, en particular en entornos ecológicamente frágiles y culturalmente vulnerables. Ha publicado varios libros y artículos en torno a estos tópicos. Colabora con el International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) y es investigador asociado del Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales CLACSO.

Guillaume Poiret

Guillaume Poiret, maître de conférences en géographie et aménagement, est élu vice-président en charge du patrimoine et du développement durable. Ancien élève de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure, Guillaume Poiret est agrégé et docteur en géographie et aménagement de l’Université Paris Sorbonne. Il a rejoint l’UPEC en 2013 en tant que maître de conférences en géographie et aménagement. Ses travaux de recherche portent sur l’Amérique du Nord. Il étudie notamment, dans le cadre d’un programme qu’il coordonne, les politiques de développement durable menées dans les villes de la Rust Belt, région industrielle en reconversion du nord-est des Etats-Unis. Guillaume Poiret a été Vice-Doyen aux Moyens de l’UFR Lettres Langues et Sciences Humaines (2015-2017) et Assesseur Patrimoine et Territoires (2016-2018).

Franck Poupeau

Franck Poupeau is a Director of Research at the CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research) and a member of the Centre de recherche et de documentation sur les Amériques (UMR 7227 CNRS/Paris3). His work focuses on urban inequalities and water policies in the South America and the United States. In addition to his numerous scientific articles, he has recently published several books including, Water Bankruptcy in the Land of Plenty (CRC Press, 2016), Water Regimes: Beyond the Public and Private Sector Debate (Routledge, 2016) and Water Conflicts and Hydrocracy. Coalitions, Networks, Policies (IEE Press, 2018). He is currently coordinating long-term collective researches on the field of water policy in the Western United States (to be published in 2018) and is also completing a book based on 10 years of fieldwork on environmental conflicts in the Andes and Bolivia (Altiplano, to be published in 2018).

Paul Robbins

Paul Robbins is the director of the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he guides the institute in serving as a world leader in addressing rapid global environmental change. Robbins’ research addresses questions spanning conservation conflicts, urban ecology, and environment and health interactions. He has done extensive fieldwork in rural India, on the politics surrounding forestry and wildlife conservation in Rajasthan, India, as well as on the wealth of biodiversity (frogs, birds and mammals) in commercial coffee and rubber plantations throughout south India. A UW-Madison alumnus with a bachelor’s degree in anthropology, Paul Robbins also holds a master’s degree and doctorate in geography, both from Clark University. He was raised in Denver, Colorado.

Jérémy Robert

Docteur en géographie de l’Université de Grenoble (2012), Jérémy Robert est chercheur pensionnaire de l’Institut Français d’Etudes Andines (IFEA) depuis 2015, à Lima, au Pérou. Il est responsable de l’axe de recherche “Métropoles et dynamiques territoriales – environnement et risques”. Ses recherches portent sur la gouvernance urbaine, en particulier sur les relations entre services publics et développement urbain, et sur leurs effets en termes de vulnérabilité et d’inégalité. Entre 2014 et 2017, il a participé au projet ANR BlueGrass sur les conflits et les politiques de l’eau dans les villes d’Amériques.

Tania Rodríguez Echavarría

Tania Rodríguez Echavarría est enseignante-chercheure titulaire à l’Université du Costa Rica, membre du Centre de Recherche et Études Politiques (CIEP, Costa Rica), chercheure associée à l’UMR 5281 ART-Dev et membre du LMI MESO. Ses recherches portent sur les dynamiques de coopération et de conflits environnementaux sur les régions de frontières en Amérique Centrale. Elle travaille actuellement sur l’impact des activités extractives (monocultures d’ananas et banane) sur ces espaces frontaliers.

Graciela Schneier-Madanes

Graciela Schneier-Madanes is an urban planner specializing in water governance. Her research adresses questions related to urban infrastructure, technical networks and territorial conflicts. Throughout her academic career, she has extensively published scientific books and has edited several “grand public” books. She been deeply engaged in the development of water research networks and in 2008, in the founding of the CNRS Joint Center on « Water » (now UMI iGlobe) at The University of Arizona. As CNRS Professor emerita she works at CREDA and maintains formal affiliations with research centers in Argentina, Latin America, the United States and Europe. She is currently President of the City of Paris Water Observatory.

Mitchell de Sousa

“Arquitecto por la universidad de Buenos Aires. Realizo varias trabajos de investigación en la Facultad de Arquitectura, diseño y urbanismo de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Actualmente realiza un posgrado en planificación y movilidad urbana en la facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de Buenos Aires y la Technische Universitat de Berlín”

Melina Tobias

Becaria Post-doctoral del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) con sede en el Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani, Argentina. Doctora (PhD) en Ciencias Sociales (UBA) y Geografía (Universidad París 3). Magister en Sociología Económica, Universidad Nacional de San Martín y Licenciada en Sociología (UBA). Profesora adjunta en la materia “taller de tesis” de la Universidad Nacional de José C. Paz y asistente en Metodología y Sociología Ambiental, UBA. Su línea de investigación versa sobre la política del agua urbana en Buenos Aires, el desarrollo de redes de infraestructura de agua y los conflictos socio-territoriales.

Sébastien Velut

Sébastien Velut is professor of Geography at Sorbonne nouvelle – Institute of Latin American Studies (IHEAL). His research focusses on development policies in Latin America, globalization and the environment. He has done extensive field work in many Latin American countries and engaged in many interdisciplinary research projects. He has published more than eighty articles and various books including Les enjeux du développement en Amérique latine (edited with Carlos Quenan, AFD 2011 revised 2014). Sébastien Velut has been director of the Institute of Latin American Studies from 2011 and 2014 and vice president for international affairs at the Sorbonne nouvelle between 2016 and 2018.

 

 

 

Water Access in Cities : a Question of Governance

January, Friday 11th ;  9h00 – 10h00

Moderator : Graciela Schneier-Madanes, CREDA

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Agua para todos o agua para quienes? La accesibilidad al servicio de redes en la Buenos Aires hidrica del siglo XX.
Melina Tobias and Andrea Catenazzi

In Argentina, the model of technical networks in potable water and sewage was strongly developed during the first half of the 20th century through the creation of the company OBras Santiarias de la Nación (OSN). However, this model quickly found its limitations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (AMBA), as the urban expansion put in question the own planning and extension of the networks. From then on, the occupation dynamics of the urban land left to the possibilities of the inhabitants themselves, the generation of self-urbanization strategies through which they resolved in a particular way, the lack of access to drinking water and sewage drains.
After more than a century of the beginning of the technical networks in the AMBA, it is possible to extract some lessons in relation to the transformations (or continuities) and superpositions of what we can define as the hydro-social cycle, understanding this as the articulation between social relations and forms of water management. In this sense, it is worth asking: What were the different forms assumed by the hydro-social cycle in relation to the technical model of networks and the dynamics of metropolitan expansion in recent centuries? How was it adapted or reinterpreted to face the challenges of urban expansion itself?
The article then proposes to analyze the evolution of the hydro-social cycle in the AMBA throughout the 20th and 21st centuries in light of the development of the technical networks system of potable water and sewage. Particularly, it is interesting to focus on the tensions that the centralized model of networks showed to extend service coverage to the entire metropolitan area, as opposed to the patterns of extended metropolitan expansion. In this context, we seek to focus the analysis on the various “solutions” presented by the main provider of the service over time to bring water and sewage to self-built areas (particularly informal settlements), and the way in which these solutions can (or can not) be understood as mechanisms of integration or social segmentation.
Regarding the methodological decisions of the presentation, we chose to work with a qualitative perspective focused on the review and analysis of secondary sources (regulations and reports from the provider company and the regulatory bodies), which in turn we will seek to complement with the data analysis censuses to evaluate the expansion of the service in the metropolitan region over time.
We identified four periods or moments throughout the history of the water and sewage service in the AMBA. The first of these extends throughout the state and national provision of OSN (1912-1980) and is characterized by the urban expansion of the metropolitan area, and the lack of recognition by the company of informal settlements with the argument technical (and political) of not being able to extend the networks there with minimum standards of quality that the company guarantees.
The second moment corresponds to the decade of the 1980s, a period of OSN decentralization, where it is possible to identify the initiation of policies developed by the National Government aimed at providing potable water in informal settlements, encouraging the implementation of pilot experiences as they were the so-called “Pro-water” programs, which involved the articulation of the company with other state actors (National and Municipal Governments) and with external financing, to respond to the lack of coverage within the metropolitan region. These initiatives, although they implied a visibility of the problem of lack of access to services in informal settlements, had a limited scope in time and space (reaching only one of the informal settlements of the AMBA).
The third period refers to the privatization of the service through the company Aguas Argentinas (AASA) and the creation within it of the Community Development area in 1999, with the aim of creating its own methodology to supply potable water and sewage to informal settlements. Within this framework, in the year 2002, the company Aguas Argentinas launches the “Modelo Participativo de Gestión” (Participatory Management Model) -MPG, also known as the Program of “Barrios Carenciados” (Disadvantaged Neighborhoods), aimed at reducing sanitary risk and expanding water and sewer services in neighborhoods of urban population. low resources and villas. The MPG involved the interaction between various institutions and actors: the privatized company, which supplied the materials and was in charge of the management of the execution; the regulatory entity, which performed the tasks of coordination and control; the municipal governments, in charge of the logistics of the program; and, finally, the residents of the informal settlements, who provided the workforce for carrying out the extension work of the networks (and in return for this the company will not charge the costs of the connection facilities, although afterwards the rate). This initiative did not require that the ownership of the land where the water and sewer projects are developed is regulated for the start of the works, which to a certain extent meant a new phase characterized by the recognition by the company of these territories previously excluded, although the recognition was presented as part of a focused policy that, as such, was not sustained over time.
The fourth and last period of the hydro-social cycle begins towards the end of privatization in 2004 with the emergence of the Water + Work (A + T) program in the municipality of La Matanza, and extends during the process of re-nationalization of the service since 2006 with the creation of the new company Agua y Saneamientos Argentinos SA (AySA), and the expansion of the A+T to Cloaca + Work (C+T) program, and to the entire concession area. This last stage is characterized by the consolidation of these programs that suppose the continuation of the MPG but with greater participation of the National State, through the then Ministry of Social Development, and with the conformation of work cooperatives that are in charge of the realization of the works in the neighborhoods. Likewise, in this last stage, the performance by AySA of a survey on informal settlements within its concession area is also highlighted, in order to know the socio-demographic characteristics and the difficulties of access to the service in these territories, and the requirement by part of the regulatory bodies, of having to relax the historical technical criteria of extension of coverage, in order to be able to provide services in informal settlements.
The study and identification of different stages in the hydro-social cycle that makes up the drinking water system and sewers in the AMBA, allowed to appreciate certain changes over time in the way in which the lending company and the National State were recognizing the importance of the problem of access to these services in self-urbanized areas, and especially in informal settlements. However, the dynamics of urban expansion in the AMBA (in an extensive way), combined with the limitations of the centralized system of networks that characterized the service from its origins, and with the institutional inertia that the company presents in order to be able to flex its technical criteria; it hinders the comprehension and development of a comprehensive policy that allows guaranteeing access to water and sewage services to the entire population of the AMBA.

When Acces to Water is Commodifies: Mexico a Case Study.
Joshua Greene

Mexico is the world leader in per capita consumption of bottled water. Throughout the country residents rely on bottled water companies primarily for drinking water. Despite the fact that almost all Mexicans have access to water infrastructure, the quantity and quality of the water that is delivered remains a challenge. As ground and surface water conditions have worsened, good water has become scarce: households have had to turn to the market for access to water for bathing, cooking and cleaning. Literature looking at the privatization of water resources has generally focused on the management of public water systems while the commodification of water has received less attention. In this paper we present the results from several years of fieldwork comparing two regions of Mexico looking at the impact of this development on the household. The paper briefly traces the history of water developments in Mexico, outlines the systemic conditions in the two study regions, and then presents the preliminary results from our research looking at how Mexicans access the water they need and how much they have to pay for it. This paper shows clearly that the burden for access has shifted from the level of governance to the level of the individual and household. Furthermore, this paper shows that markets solutions to access, and specifically the commodification water, has not resolved the key issues at the heart of SDG 6.1, bringing access to all.

Flint Water Crisis, Managing Water in Shrinking Cities

Guillaume Poiret

Flint is a city in the State of Michigan which grew from the 50s to the early 80s, booming with the extension of the auto industry.
Then jobs were relocated which led to both an economic and an urban crisis since the city strongly declined. The city was loosing inhabitants and had less financial ressources. In 2011 the State of Michigan had to appoint an emergency manager to take the place of the mayor since the city had declare a state of financial emergency.
To improve the financial situation hard choices are made implying serious cuts on numerous local services. The search for efficiency is also focused on water. In 2013, the building of a new pipeline from Lake Huron to the city is decided to replace the former system providing fresh water which relied on the Detroit supply network. It has to be completed before 2014. However delays force the manager to find a temporary solution to supply the city with water : the Flint river will be use without complete treatment to provide water to the inhabitants.
From 2014 to 2016, Flint is drinking a contaminated and unsafe water althought inhabitants voices against the poor quality of water are ignored by emergency manager’s staff and Michigan staff. It’s only in the beginning of 2016 that the state of Michigan starts providing spring water and is ready to consider the issue, studying a huge plan to replace all the pipes of the city and to find another supply network.
If Flint water is now officially drinkable, water distribution is still in action and inhabitants still fear to use tap water. Flint water crisis has been seen as a symbol of the ongoing racial tensions in the US since nearly 60% of Flint population is black while Michigan Governor was white and Republican. It has also been argued that the crisis is the result of the absence of policy to adapt the city to progressive shrinkage. Urban decline and its concequences have been ignored at the local level.
Based on a field work and on interviews of councillors, staff and activists, this paper will explore the water crisis as a miror of urban decline showing both how urban and marketing policies to promote the city and attract newcomers lead to social and racial tensions, tensions during the crisis being just the top of a more profound movement, and how the lack of shrinkage planning in US mid sized shrinking cities undermines the resilience of cities themselves.

 

Water Conflicts and Local Knowledge

January, Thursday, 10th  ; 14h30 – 16h30

Moderator : Carine Chavarochette, CREDA

 

Territorio y Poder en los Andes: una aproximación a las Luchas de Comunidades Indígenas de los Andes del Norte de Ecuador.
Pablo Ortiz 

The Ecuadorian Andes are part of one of the regions with the greatest environmental and geomorphological diversity in the world. In the case of Cayambe, climate change and agroindustrial capital investments, particularly dairy and floriculture, have altered the water situation, including access problems, either for human consumption or for irrigation. That has posed a set of challenges for the Kayambi people and their economic, social, political and territorial rights.
Water and its administration seem to provide some keys to open spaces for coordination and organizational strengthening, challenging the formal scheme of the State regarding the management of water resources. To what extent has such a change of legal-constitutional paradigm since 2008 been translated into a substantial alteration of power relationships, of asymmetric and excluding post-colonial social structures and of fragile, ethnocentric and monocultural institutions? The text explores some elements present in the history of the Kayambi to identify some keys to the future. The responses provided by indigenous organizations regarding water management are varied and range from an assimilation of the state logic and logic, to a tension with public institutions based on the construction of a special autonomous indigenous regime that defines among its responsibilities the administration of water.


L’eau, la frontière et l’ananas : déplacement des conflits pour l’eau dans le bassin transfrontalier du fleuve San Juan (Costa-Rica-Nicaragua).
Lucile Medina et Tania Rodriguez

 

The San Juan River basin, shared between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, is one of the most important freshwater reservoirs in the Central American Isthmus, not only because of its surface waters but also because of the importance of the transboundary groundwater table, whose precise dimensions are still poorly studied by both countries. The lack of cross-border cooperation projects to manage this shared basin is a direct consequence of the two countries’ long-standing river-related border conflicts over navigation on the border river and controversial developments. This border area has been neglected in terms of environmental conservation and development policies. Since the 1980s, the Nord Zone of Costa Rica bordering Nicaragua has experienced the unregulated expansion of  pineapple monoculture. According to the latest figures from UNDP through its Mocupp programme (Monitoreo de cambio de uso de la tierra en paisajes productivos) 53% of Costa Rica’s pineapple fields are located in 3 border cantons in the San Juan River basin. However, pineapple production is one of the most polluting agricultural activities, in particular through the use of pesticides and agrochemical products that generate water pollution and very significant impacts on the health of populations via drinking water. Our communication thus seeks to show that the issue of water in the San Juan basin, long addressed by a purely geopolitical approach to interstate conflict, has become more complex and must now also be grasped in its social and environmental dimension in order to understand the emerging conflicts surrounding the use and pollution of water and mobilizing new actors.

 

From hope to conflict: inequality in access to water by farmers resettled by the São Francisco river in the state of Pernambuco – Brazil.
Ana Carolina Aguerri Borges

 

The controversial project to transpose the São Francisco river provides access to water for an estimated 12 million people in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. After more than a decade of the beginning of its construction, with part of the work still in progress, we can verify that a portion of the population reached by this project, is also potentially beneficiary of the same. We refer to the farmers resettled in Rural Productive Villages (VPR), the Basic Environmental Project (PBA), a program of responsibility of the Ministry of National Integration that aims to resettle farmers (owners or not) reached along the banks of the two channels of transposition (North Axis and East Axis). There are altogether 18 Rural Productive Villages distributed between the states of Pernambuco, Ceará and Paraíba.
Most of the affected properties and families residing in the expropriated areas, as well as the first implanted villages are in the hinterland of Pernambuco. We delimited our study to analyze a complex socioenvironmental phenomenon linked to a compensatory public policy focused on the resettlement of populations affected, expropriated and potentially beneficiaries of the project of transposition of the São Francisco river in the eight villages of the state of Pernambuco. It is a question of analyzing the situation of the resettled families, as the access of these families to the water and consequently the social reproduction of the population involved. In order to carry out the research, which is qualitative, descriptive and exploratory, we used as a methodological strategy the participatory observation carried out during field work in the villages:. where we applied objective questionnaire and also semi-structured interviews, which allowed us to reconstruct the life trajectory of the resettled families, to understand the political organization of the villages, as well as to build a socio-environmental panorama.
These resettled farmers have historically lived with a reality of water restriction both for human supply, animal feed and especially for the development of agriculture. In this context, the resettlement program has given farmers the expectation of overcoming a cycle of dependency (drought industry) established over generations. However, our research has uncovered a reality with a number of problems and contradictions, especially with regard to the quantity and quality of water available and the emergence of conflicts among villagers. In this respect, the perspective of a change in the conditions of access to water has become the establishment of a new socio-environmental dynamic that does not overcome the old dilemmas (drought industry, inequality, poverty) and places at the center of the problem the generation of new conflicts in addition to the difficulties in the political organization (community) of the towns involved. All these elements lead us to understand that the democratization of access to water, which guarantees the right of communities to obtain this natural good permanently, is far from becoming a reality, what we can observe is a process of inequality and exclusion that perpetuates among the population of the northeastern sertão.

 

Water, conflicts and patrimony in Mexico: the struggles of peasant communities against urbanization
Jade Latargère

 

Through the study of two water conflicts linked to urbanization in the State of Morelos, this article shows that water conflicts in Mexico don’t only express demands on water access, but also patrimonial claims: peasant communities mobilize because they want to preserve some water points, some hydraulic infrastructure (water networks, water tanks) that have a special meaning for them. Although in Morelos, water networks have given rise to a specific hydraulic culture, the patrimonial project is not only linked to the will of preserving a cultural heritage that may disappear and has a political and identity relevance for peasant communities that have been deeply shaken up by the land reforms of the nineties. Nevertheless, water public actors do not take patrimonial claims into account, and conflicts are latent.


Women, water and coal: sociocultural transformations in the Wayuu of the Colombian Guajira
Inés Calvo Valenzuela


The Wayuu society living in the department of La Guajira represents the 20% of the Colombian indigenous population. La Guajira is divided into three geographical zones, Upper Guajira in the north, Middle, and Lower Guajira in the south. In 1985, El Cerrejón, the largest open-cast coal mine in the planet was established in the lower Guajira. Since the mine establishment, the coal exploitation by El Cerrejón has had an obvious impact on the environmental level: the projects of rivers’ deviation and the water and groundwater pollution are some of the examples.
In the area of Upper Guajira situated 300 miles north of El Cerrejón, the Wayuu have rarely heard of this mine. The Wayuu from the north have particular water-related meanings: water is protected by a meta-person, guardian of wild animals, living in water sources, called Pulowi. This entity punished the men who squander the water sources. Women are the only ones who can nurture a relationship – especially protection – with this element. As a result, the symbolic practices related to water in this society, such as the rituals dedicated to the deity of the rain, Juyaa, as well as the sacrifices intended for Pulowi, demonstrate how much daily activities are governed by the absence or presence of celestial water and terrestrial water. Thus, water concerns have an economic dimension (agricultural production, survival) and a spiritual one (rituals dedicated to “deities” related to water, baths in the middle of the night as healing techniques after a bad dream, etc.).
However, this relationship with the water has been truncated in Lower Guajira since the installation of the mining enclave. For the majority of Wayuu people living in the south, the access to water is only provided by the large Rancheria River (150km long) that crosses the Middle and Lower Guajira. Nine municipalities of the Lower Guajira are located on this river’s banks. In 2012, the mine has developed a project of 26’2km river deviation in order to extract 500 million tonnes of coal. At present, one of the river’ affluent, the most abundant, called Bruno, is also threatened. Thus, these deviation projects in the south of the region are opposite to the meanings related to the water observed in the northern Wayuu people. The mine apprehends this element as a quantifiable and de-socialized resource. For this reason, large indigenous mobilizations against mining activities took place during the last few years.
In The colombian Constitution it is required that the indigenous people of the south Guajira designate a representative called “Cabildo Gobernador”. The male representatives -following a typical gender model of colombian political representation– are today those who protect the water. Then, the water is seen as an element that has to be defended but not for the same reasons that it is protected in the north related to the entity guardian Pulowi. The wayuu political representatives from the south feel supported by international ecological policies and legislation and reproduce its frame in their struggle against the mine. Infine, these new political forms of struggling modify the identification forms between Wayuu people and the water and, the new identification forms transform the wayuu politics in return.

Operational Approaches and Social Sciences

January, Friday 11th ;  14 h 30 – 16 h 30

Moderator : Sébastien Velut, CREDA



Provision of ecosystem services in water supply catchment perimeters for integrated environmental management of water resources
Nilo Nascimiento et Vanessa Cancado

This work focuses on the use of integrated natural resource management tools. The focus is on watersheds in metropolitan areas equipped with reservoirs that are strategic sources for drinking water supply. These catchments and their receiving bodies are subject to various anthropic pressures that stem from the social complexity and dynamics of economic activities that characterize large urban areas, institutionalized as metropolitan areas. Climate change, associated with changes in land use and impacts on natural resources, are aggravating factors.
Constructing and simulating future land-use scenarios using a business as usual approach or soil and water conservation strategies is one way to clarify threats to water security in those metropolitan areas, as well as to assess the potential of the economic, social and environmental benefits of protecting water sources, with additional benefits such as flood control, the promotion of biodiversity in urban and peri-urban areas, the creation of opportunities for social exchanges and recreation, ….
Once the scenarios have been identified, the economic, political and institutional approaches to implement policies leading to water protection are to be developed. Taking into account the legal instruments (eg: metropolitan land use zoning in areas of public interest) and economic instruments (eg: pricing of water consumption, payment for ecosystem services, coverage of opportunity costs to migrate towards environmental protection practices or for the promotion of uses with less impact on natural resources) are pertinent scientific and operational questions.
In this paper, we discuss the use of economic instruments for environmental management, and more specifically the Payment for Ecosystem Services – PES: transactions between two or more parties by means of compensation (monetary or otherwise) to those who promote water and soil conservation practices, such as the recovery of degraded areas, the protection of forests, the changes on agricultural practices that tend to compromise ecosystem services provision, such as inefficient irrigation services, field burning, the use of agrochemicals (Muradian, 2010, Seppelt et al. 2011) and others. In a context of restricted public sector budgets, the PES can be considered as a lower cost alternative for environmental recovery actions, in addition to stimulating behavioural changes in the relationship between society and the environment (Bobbio, 2011, Tejeiro, 2013). This study is part of a research project about metropolitan water supply protection strategies funded by the Agência Nacional de Águas (National Water Agency), Brazilian regulator of water resources, and Capes, a Brazilian research funding agency.
The implementation of a PES program is here discussed through the construction of land use and land use scenarios and the introduction of protective practices and environmental recovery. Costs of setting up and handling the measures, as well as transaction costs are evaluated, in addition to the possible sources of financing, considering their relevance in the viability and acceptance of the program.
The case study area is Serra Azul catchment which is equipped with a reservoir for drinking water supply, part of the Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Region drinking water system. The Belo Horizonte Metropolitan Area, located in Southeast Brazil, gathers 34 municipalities and approximately 5.8 million inhabitants. Livestock activities, mining activities, urban expansion areas, residential farms form a mosaic of human uses in the basin, which even has a significant percentage of areas covered with native vegetation. These features reinforce the need for management approaches that harmonizes the different land and water uses in the catchment, ensuring long-term sustainability.

Diagnostic methodology studies in urban basin areas: The analysis of landscape units in the neighborhoods of Pompeya (City of Buenos Aires) and Valentin Alsina (Buenos Aires Province) in the metropolitan area of ​​Buenos Aires. The Riachuelo as a place of interaction between its inhabitants.
Mitchell de Sousa

The Riachuelo (Matanza-Riachuelo River) has been historically associated in the image of the citizens of Buenos Aires as an urban edge. It is conventionally recognized as a interjurisdictional limit that divides the Main city of Buenos Aires with the rest of the Metropolitan Area of ​​Buenos Aires. Being an interstice space, with the exception of some few accesses by bridges, and of strong concentration of infrastructures at the end of the 19th century that It supplied the old port, today it is one of the most neglected areas in the region. Its banks are strongly marked by the neglect or circulation of motorized transport industrial and old infrastructures were many usurped by the informal room (villas of emergency and settlements). Also, the Riachuelo, being an ambiguous space jurisdictionally and therefore lacking intervention by public agencies, became a river of both industrial waste stream and informal settlement and far from taking advantage of the quality of its watershed, it is associated as a place of social marginality.

The aims to show some of the strategies that different actions from the history of how the present was achieved up to the current intervention policies of different management and practices of the inhabitants, mainly those that inhabit the basin. The approach methodology to this work is the detection of “landscape units” and the collective construction, by a landscape perspective, with neighbors based on interviews and audiovisual productions for construction of perceptual maps. These mappings show how the inhabitants of the landscape units who lives the Riachuelo routinely, despite the difference in banks, have in common that they observe the Riachuelo as a potential place to win, in particular, as a source of livelihood and, in general, to convert it into a place that allows these inhabitants to recognize their right to the city and the right to water.


The hydrosocial approach and its cycles in Latin America: use, abuse and a possible way through the maze
Robin Larsimont and Facundo Martin

During the past few years, the conceptual framework of the Political ecology of water has gained a growing promotion and acceptance in Latin America. The proliferation of hybrid concepts used to address hydrological related issues – or hydrosocial approach – has provided fertile ground for research to many social and environmental scientists of the region. The hydrosocial approach made it possible the acknowledgement of processes that regulate the access and control of water, considering the many and diverse agents as well as the spatial and temporal scales involved in those processes. This academic increasing production corresponds to – and is partially explained by – the “leading” role of water in the large number of looting experiences and rapine economy that Latin America has endured during the “boom” cycle of commodities which seems to be present nowadays. In this respect, the hydrosocial approach was introduced as a valuable tool with many heuristic possibilities making it possible to reconsider the relations of power which has been historically shaped by the use and appropriation of water.
In this paper, we seek to promote a theoretical and methodological balance process in accordance with the large number of studies which have been carried out within this framework. Due to the massive amount of empirical studies, the purpose of this paper is to provide a thoughtful and exploratory exercise – which does not pretend, in any manner, to be exhausted – encouraging a climate of open dialogue on this widespread phenomenon. From this position, we intend to focus our attention to the lack of criticism and repetitive argumentation in current literature. Two interrelated observations support our arguments:
1) Instead of being interpreted on the grounds of complex ontological and epistemological imbrications, the hydrosocial approach has been construed as “rhetorical” or “jargon”. Thus, the explanations tend to be court-circuitées and study cases always and/or simply tend to reinforce the sophisticated –though flexible – theoretical diagram.
2) Academic papers showing a dynamic and receptive argumentative structure in accordance with the complexity of the studied phenomenon generally tend to present significant voids,omissions, and obscurity as regards the operating procedures or techniques for data production.
Based on that observation, our work has been organized into four steps. Firstly, we indicated the origins of the hydrosocial approach and highlighted its significant milestones and influence. Secondly, we provided an account of the proliferation of the hydrosocial perspective in the region as well as the main theses that have contributed to the organization of research and field explanations. Thirdly, and as an overall assessment, we made a critical analysis of some examples of “appropriation” and frequent use of this theoretical framework to analyze cases from/about Latin America. To this end, we narrowed down the analysis of literature – appropriation, use and abuse –and focused on the introduction of the concept “hydrosocial approach” to rural areas of Latin America, especially in Andean and Southern Cone countries. In this respect, we identified problems related to the conceptual im(precision), rhetoric im(potence), and obscurity in the field of work. Finally, and as a conclusion, we pondered on some possible paths based on precision and conceptual operationalization, historization and open access to cycles, and clarity in the field of work. All those aspects would be applied to Latin American areas in which the limited access to information and the need to monitor the construction and interpretation of data are commonplace.
This essay encourages constructive debate and critical thought among those researchers involved in this area or that just value the heuristic potential of the hydrosocial approach. We may conclude that this perspective can be presented as a useful tool for the social study of water as long as it considers the complex theoretical and methodological imbrications facing the reality which is intended to tackle.

 

Reconnecting through Water or the One with the Longest Straw Takes it All. Groundwater Self-Management in a Green Californian Desert 
Birgit Müller and Elise Boutie 

Surrounded by steep bare slopes and dry canyons with juniper, sagebrush and manzanillas the flat valley bottom of Cuyama Valley startles with lush green and gushing sprinklers that turn in the hot midday sun. Here grow 17% of all carrots produced in the United States thanks to the incessant pumping of fossil waters from 1500 feet deep wells. Between 7 to 15 inches of rain fall annually on the valley floor, making it the driest place in coastal Central California. Two agricultural corporations worth billions of dollars manage production, pump the water, hire migrant labour and sell carrots to the major US supermarket chains. The fossil water of the valley aquifer currently gets depleted at three times the renewal rate (8,000 safe annual withdrawal, overdraft 28,526) and leaves deposits of heavy metals and radioactive substances on the soil boosted by irrigation. When the pumps are switched off the sandy soil starts blowing uninhibited by cover crop vegetation or treed shelterbelts.
In the midst of these lands where millions of dollars are made every year by depleting the aquifers, the inhabitants of the decaying townsite New Cuyama seek to restore some environmental justice by invoking their share of rights over groundwater as a common good, and the fact that they are the only users who actually administrate the access and the use of groundwater collectively. Up a side canyon a permaculture community cares for a catchment of a one-foot wide brook that takes 4 to 10 gallons of water per minute to bring it down to the vegetable gardens. On the opposite side of the valley an ecology-professor trains his wine stocks to lengthen their roots and grow without irrigation and further North the daughters of the biggest landowner pasture herds of cattle on sparse vegetation of un-irrigated land. Between full-time residents collaborating to administrate water becoming increasingly scarce and absentee agricultural corporations squandering it the relationship to the territory and its waters is the same.
These different realities are brought together by a set of laws passed in 2014, by Jerry Brown, then governor of California. Local agencies with authority over water were to form a new institution, a GSA – Groundwater Sustainability Agency, by July 1, 2017, with the aim of establishing between users of the same water table, a sustainable management plan for this hydraulic resource. The agency had to be self-financing through the contributions of the water users. A basin management plan aligned with climate cycles, land use, and planning policies has to be developed to reduce groundwater deficits and extend the life of the basin. How do these different interests play out when they have to come up with a common project?
Through an ethnography of agricultural and political practices in the valley we will interrogate the concept of sustainability as it is defined in the legislative text. How is the empty signifier “sustainability” filled by the actors maintaining different relationships with the landscape / territory? While for some water is an integral element of the landscape inscribed in the longterm and necessary to preserve, for others it is a free resource subject to immediate human needs and desires and historically appropriated through intensive extraction. Can the milestones of a new governance institution put in place by the text of the law lay the foundations of a common language?
In this paper we explore the political struggles and strategies involved with creating this new governance structure. The struggles not only bring contrasting engagements with the valley landscape and conflicting temporalities in perspective, they also allow to examine how citizens, property owners and private corporations use the legal structures of local water self-management. How was it possible that the manager of one of the two big corporations extracting the major part of the groundwater became the president of the Groundwater Sustainability Agency? Through a fine grained observation of the meetings founding the GSA, we analyze how the different actors mobilize, undercut and manipulate inside the various committees the democratic tools put at the service of the local actors. We show how the imperative of community harmony and the assumption of a shared idea of the common good effectively silence critical disourses, disempower local actors and create a veil that dissimulates the raw fact that water resources accumulated over thousands of year are extracted for the benefit of a few at a phenomenal pace.

The Emergence of Alternative Water Policies

January, Friday 11th  ; 11h30 – 13h30

Moderator :  Franck Poupeau, CREDA

 

What socio-ecological transition for water management in Lima?

Jérémy Robert

This communication is based on the ANR Bluegrass research project on water conflicts and policies in American cities, using an analysis of multi-level coalitions to understand policy changes (Massardier et al., 2015). The policy change in Lima is analyzed through the conflicts around the establishment of a Water Resources Council in the Peruvian capital (on the models of the French Basin Agencies). The analysis highlights the tension between two policy sectors, on the one hand the urban water service, and on the other, water resource management. This configuration is being disrupted by the emergence of an alternative coalition. This alternative produces new modalities of territorial governance to face the crisis of the actual management model in a context of challenging traditional water infrastructure. The emergence of this coalition can be interpreted as an ecological turn in urban water policies, as part of an ongoing socio-ecological transition.
To understand the conditions of emergence of this alternative coalition, we will first examine the process of the Water Resources Council creation and the controversies it has engendered. Second, we will present the characteristics of this coalition, based on alliances between actors with differing profiles and interests, but who share common strategies. Next, we explain how the Council serves as a catalyst to facilitate the emergence of environmentalist causes and to introduce professionals with new skills and trajectories into the water management space. To extend this analysis, we identify the articulations of the Council initiative with a series of technological or institutional innovations (desalination of seawater, aquifer regulation and ecosystem retribution mechanisms) that have been implemented recently in Lima. As with the Council, these innovations can be conceptualized as secondary beliefs in the advocacy coalition framework (Sabatier & Jenkins-Smith, 1993).
We demonstrate that while some consensus has been acheived, there is great diversity in the process of ecological transition in water management. This highlights both political (power relationships) and territorial (space control and power materialization) issues that play into water management reconfigurations. The hypothesis is that the socio-ecological transition initiated in Lima is part of a logic of ecological modernization (Beal 2016) or sobriety (Lorrain et al. 2018), which does not fundamentally challenge the dominant management model based on large infrastructures and engineering knowledge.

 

Water bureaucracies challenged by alternative water management in the urban peripheries of Mexico

Amaël Marchand

On the front lines of the water crisis in Mexico, the urban peripheries are also places of experimentation for alternative management models that are supposed to guarantee the human right to water and the protection of the environment more effectively than liberalization or the large hydraulic infrastructure promoted by the federal water bureaucracy. Starting from two case studies, this paper will show that the experts promote alternatives that are sometimes very far from the initial objectives of users and whose effects on the actual modalities of urban water management are limited. Nevertheless, they contribute to making the water crisis, initially produced by the lack of funding and planning, a knowledge crisis of the water bureaucracies and their monopoly on the production of public policies of water. Frequent interruptions of the distribution service at Ramos Arizpe in Saltillo City, as well as floods and land subsidence in Valle de Chalco in Mexico City, highlight two facets of the peri-urban water crisis. This is above all an infrastructure crisis produced by urban expansion and the incapacity of the institutions in charge of water management to cope with it. The lack of financial means is reflected in Ramos Arizpe by a defective extension of the distribution and supply network providing a poor quality service. The unplanned urbanization of Valle de Chalco is occurring since the 1980s on flood-prone land with soft ground, near poorly  maintained or dangerous large hydraulic infrastructure. The problems of water management in Ramos Arizpe as in Valle de Chalco have given rise to the intervention of experts who perceive their commitment to popular users as a form of activism. These experts actively participate in the production of conflicts making alliances with water users who demand access to better service and by promoting alternative water management. In Valle de Chalco a multidisciplinary group of academics is developing participatory planning that aims to establish an urban water ecosystem presented as an alternative to large networked infrastructure. In Ramos Arizpe the remunicipalization of the public-private operator is presented at the global level as an alternative to liberalization measures and as an opportunity to implement the human right to water.  Hindered by water bureaucracies, experts promoting alternatives fail to produce radical changes in water management. However, they succeed in renegotiating their place in the balance of power over urban water management by questioning not only the knowledge of water bureaucracies, but also the very legitimacy of their monopoly over the production of public water policies. They reappropriate the official participative institutions at the local level and seek to give them real decision-making power by intervening in the controversies surrounding the reforms of the federal water laws.


Water conservation in Arizona desert cities : «fixing» the water supply issue or questionning the oasis lifestyle?
Anne-Lise Boyer and Brian O’Neill

Many recent publications question the sustainability of the major metropoles of Arizona.  The impacts of climatic change and water wars are the most cited examples of the need to turn away from water management practices that serve economic growth, and towards a more conservation oriented model. Since the 1980s, Arizona cities have been praising themselves for being the avant garde of water conservation to sustain urban attractiveness. The exemplars of this oasis city model, Phoenix and Tucson, are the fastest growing cities in the U.S. We question therefore water conservation policies and practices as a “hydrosocial fix”[1], whereby cities, water professionals and others bind together to form a heterogeneous assemblage to alter the norms of past water management so that these metropoles can maintain and in fact reassure urban growth.
This presentation focuses on the meeting of two different qualitative social surveys, one made by B. O’Neill who studies water professionals as a category composed of engineers, lawyers, planners, scientists and politicians. Another survey has been conducted by A-L. Boyer, who examines water conservation strategies at the city and neighborhood levels and how they are spawned from grassroots efforts. This study shows that, on the one hand, the risks of water shortages from the Colorado River in Arizona are a technical and environmental concern and that professionals have become dedicated to the promotion of water conservation. With this context, planning, legal and political capacities have become merged with experts and knowledge in hydrology, geology and statistical modeling to try to “fix” the dysfunction of the hydro-social cycle[2]. On the other hand, the research has found that environmental organizations have raised a critical approach to the “hydraulic bureaucracy”[3] at the core of the region’s historical construction in that they are defending alternative and local water supplies to promote a low water-use desert lifestyle and gain power over the water agencies managing mega infrastructures.

[1] Swyngedouw, E. “Into the sea: desalination as hydro-social fix in Spain.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103.2 (2013): 261-270.

[2] Linton, J., and Budds.J. “The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational-dialectical approach to water.” Geoforum 57 (2014): 170-180.

[3] Worster, D. (1985). Rivers of empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West, New York: Pantheon


The Social Determinants of Water Conflicts
Joan Cortinas and Lala Razafimahefa

It is generally admitted that, in “a world of inequality”, the poor are the ones who suffer the most from environmental degradations, and in particular from the effects of the “ecological transition”. From this finding follows the idea that the uneven distribution of environmental costs explains, just as obviously, the multiplication of conflicts in which the most disadvantaged populations express their anger and their frustrations, for lack of access to decision-making bodies. A social science research on this conflictuality, however, can’t be limited to the simple finding of inequalities, linked mechanically as well as implicitly to the protest movements they would provoke, in a context of “global water crisis”; Nor can it be content with the (neo)institutional analyzes of the “governance of the commons”, which place local negotiations (conducted at the local level) at the center of the analysis, while it is about grasping the plurality of factors likely to impact the practices of the “water protagonists”. The conflicts are effectively of various kinds: between the resident populations (more or less organized, more or less discriminated) and the institutions in charge of supervising them of course, but also between the different professional bodies (civil engineers, biologists, etc.) who intervene in the implementation of water policies or in the management of urban networks; these conflicts are played at the level of representations but also of uses (agricultural, industrial, urban and particularly energy, etc.).
This presentation is based on an international comparative research conducted on water conflicts in several countries of the Americas (Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Mexico, United States). The elaboration of an analytical framework that could link the various cases of studies was based on the “Advocacy coalition framework” approach, which proposes to analyze the networks of protagonists involved in the implementation of public policies. On the one hand, this framework has the advantage of being relatively flexible and adaptable to a wide variety of empirical situations and, on the other hand, the possibility of implementing methods, qualitative or quantitative, which can also be transposed to different terrains. A questionnaire was thus established to give each team common variables.
The originality of this research is to have incorporated variables often forgotten by the mainstream of approaches in terms of coalitions, which focus on shared beliefs: the impact of the network structure and the perception of the influence of the main protagonists (network resources), but also the academic, professional and militant trajectories of the protagonists of the water (personal resources).
The results of the research lead to shifting the analysis, initially focused on the claims addressed to a government by the protest of the resident populations, often caused by contaminated waters, unequal access to the service or refusal of privatization of the company, towards an understanding of water management models, which involve complex administrative structures, both dedicated to urban services and interlinked with power issues that transcend them – structures that will be referred to here as “hydrocracies”. In the local narrative of extremely polarized situations, the sociological analysis sheds light on the formation of water policies by taking into account the educational and professional characteristics of those who compose hydrocracies.

 

 

 

 

Soirée “Mines and Water”

Documentary Screening

La Hija de La Laguna, réalisé par Ernesto Cabellos (2015)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnFlbT7rnsI

 

Moderator : Nicolas Richard, CREDA

Commented by: Kyra Grieco and Antonia Zambra

 

From the « Pacha-» to the « Yaku-mama » ? Feminisation and indigenisation of water in a context of social mobilisation against mining
Kyra Grieco

This paper analyses the social construction of water, and particularly its feminisation and indigenisation, in the context of a local mobilisation against mining activities. It draws on 12 months of ethnographic research, carried out between 2011 and 2013 in the north-Andean region of Cajamarca, Peru, amongst participants to mobilisations against mining project Minas Conga. Fieldwork observations and interviews are complemented by an analysis of the audio-visual production concerning this social movement during the following period (2013-2016). This allows to account for the adaptation and diffusion of local conflict narratives and representations of water at the national and international level.
First, I will present some of the shortcomings of existing political ecology literature, in order to highlight the contribution of an ethnographic perspective to the study of water. The forms of knowledge and practice which are mobilised by local actors opposed to mining development will then allow to highlight the process of politization of water. Finally, the representation of water as a feminised and “indigenous” element, victim of a masculinised and destructive modernity, illustrates a process of re-signification aiming to counter extractive activities through the naturalisation of ethnic and gender relations.

 

Lickanantai water knowledge and it recent transformation in a context of social and environmental change (Atacama Desert, Chile).
Antonia Zambra-Álvarez

Despite high climate variability in the Atacama Desert (23°30’S, 68°15’O), one of the driest regions in the world, the consistent water supply from the Andes Mountains, has historically allowed Atacameño (Lickanantai) people to cultivate a wide range of agricultural crops as well as develop pastoralist activities, by taking advantage of several altitudinal ecological zones in different seasonal regimes. To do this, irrigation techniques and other flexible and strategic schemes associated with long-term water ecological knowledge, have been established since pre-Inca times. These adaptive strategies have not only shaped the relationship of these Andean societies with the environment but also, have been crucial in the maintenance and protection of the socioecological system of the desert oases.  Nevertheless, in the last decade extreme climate events in the Andes have contributed to floods, droughts, cold and heat waves, as never seen before. From a socio-historical perspective, adaptive schemes of this water societies which were central to the local economy until the end of the nineteenth century, gradually started to be replaced by modern activities, particularly mining and tourism. Given this context, it seems vital to identify not only how local experiences and representations of changing environmental conditions interact with social and economic changes at a global level, but also to explain the way in which culturally-acquired water knowledge is integrated, disregarded or remains opposed to other kinds of current knowledge systems and practices brought by a capitalist logic around the human-water-relationship. To respond to these concerns, I present here the case of Toconao, a village located at the northeast of the Atacama Salt Lake basin, where I carried out six weeks of fieldwork between May and June 2016. In 2011 and 2012 respectively, inhabitants of Toconao experienced floods bringing debris, water, and trees. Among their negative effects were the almost complete disappearance of farmlands, and the destruction of houses, fruit trees, irrigation channels, and bridges. In this context, Toconao become an interesting place to study further how traditional societies understand culturally-acquired knowledge around water, but also to explore how they have experienced changes around traditional water knowledge due to the social and economic events in the last decades. To achieve these aims, I applied, in first place, the theoretical framework exposed by Firket Berkes in his book “Sacred Ecology” (2008), to identify and describe how different levels of local water knowledge manifested itself in Toconao. In second place, I attempted to characterised how this localised knowledge around water has gradually changed due to the environmental and social transformations experienced during the last decades. Both exercises allowed me to conclude that the theoretical framework proposed by Firket Berkes (2008) seems a useful approach to analyse the interwoven elements that interact and shape local ecological knowledge around water, as well as to understand and follow how this knowledge has been affected by recent social and environmental changes.

 

 

From Water Law to the Right to Water

January, Thursday 10th  ; 11h30 – 13h30

Moderator : Rutgerd Boelens, University of Wageningen

From scarcity to the state of exception in water government in the Americas. A comparative approach
Liber Martin

This paper focuses on drought and critically addresses emergency regulations in a comparative approach drawing from the study cases of arid or semiarid regions in Argentina, Chile, United States, Spain and Australia. I argue here that droughts are being used politically to justify not applying the law and exercising extraordinary powers to maintain the status quo despite they are normal events rather than exceptional or catastrophic events. The hypothesis that guides this research is that with no direct link to scarcity, emergency regulations due to drought tend to become more frequent or even permanent despite being (in theory and by definition) temporary or exceptional, driving water law and policy into a state of exception. I conclude that drought cannot take the place of scarcity, and both of them should be taken seriously as a departing point for framing water law and policy reforms into a more sustainable and democratic paradigm.

 

Water Accumulation by Dispossession in Chile: an Analysis of Geo-Legal Devices
Chloé Nicolas-Artero

The present paper aims at analyzing the accumulation by dispossession process from the standpoint of the legal geography. It highlights the geo-legal device that lead to water concentration and accumulation of capital by the so-called extractive sectors. The geo-legal device constitutes «the social game existing around the rules in a particular territorial context», which produce space (Garcier in Forest, 2009 p. 53). Through which geo-legal device do agents produce or reclaim law and space to concentrate water by dispossessing small users? Based on Elqui River Basin case study, I discuss in this paper the hypothesis that three geo-legal devices explain the legal and spatial modalities of water accumulation by dispossession: water concessions granted by DGA, Dirección General de Aguas, water markets and exceptional devices.  The research methodology is based on participant observation of water organizations and on semi-structured interviews with water users, regional and national public institutions. The concept of geo-legal device facilitates the comprehension of water accumulation by dispossession processes by detaching itself from a legal formalism often present in critical approaches. It highlights, first, the power of the civil servants and their spatial perceptions in these processes. These cannot be understood, either, without integrating Chilean society’s economic and social inequalities. Indeed, the inequality in access to and consciousness of law, as well as the economic precariousness of inhabitants explain water dispossession. Finally, this concept highlights the collusion between civil servants and entrepreneurs, a clear class alliance, to developing water concentration strategies. These involve the material appropriation of technical objects, the production and distortion of rules, and the justification rhetoric used in the name of the human right access to water.

 

Water in the Americas : Crossover Perspectives in Social Sciences. The Challenges of Access to Water and the Right to Water (legal Pluralism, Indigenous Rights)
Ana Gendron

The analysis of the Kayambi communities’ mythical stories of the northern Andes highlights the importance of the geographical environment. Especially its aquatic component. Since colonial times, the complexity of the dynamics of land appropriation and access to water resources had an impact on the redefinition of social relations. The owners of the hacienda to prevent them from entering their estates abandoned the páramo to the comuneros. The geographical distribution of families in the community is a result of the distribution of land at the time of land reform.
It seems that for the Kayambi, huasipungo has become a key element of access to genealogical memory and kinship facts. Thus, even if huasipungo has disappeared as a legal form, it remains as a spatial and temporal reference point and therefore constitutes an essential anthropological object.
The Minga is an important Andean institution. It is active in different contexts where compromises and agreements are always present. Changes in social life of the Kayambi have changed the forms of organization and the division of labor within families. However, the Kayambi continue to base their relations on developed principles of mutual assistance and solidarity.
The Constitutions of 1998 and 2008 formally recognized Indians and their communities as economic and political actors. In this context, anthropological analyses lead to legal questions raised by access to water and its management. The community assembly is the decision-making body concerning community aspects. It has the power to delegate, decide and intervene.
The drastic reduction in the resources allocated to development projects is in contradiction with the fundamental principles set out in Ecuador’s constitutions. Thus, the State no longer has the means to provide concrete assistance to indigenous communities but grants them unprecedented legitimacy by promoting their cultural specificities as invaluable resources of the nation.
For these communities, the legal approach, however accurate it may be, cannot be sufficient to take into account the rules and practices relating to the preservation and use of water resources intertwining with the other social norms. Especially when these social groups are constantly renewing by keeping their community institutions such as Minga, Huasipungo and the mythical and ritual speech acts alive.

Constitutional Reforms for the Enshrinement of the Right to Water: Opportunities and Limitations in Brazil, Colombia and Peru
Camila Gianella, Camila Gianella, Angela Maria Paez, Catalina Vallejo

This paper offers a comparative analysis of constitutional reform processes towards the enshrinement of a freestanding right to water in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We identify different dynamics and tensions around water governance in each country and we show how these factors have shaped whether constitutional reforms have been approved in each case. Particularly, we explore why while a constitutional reform passed in Peru, in Brazil and Colombia these attempts have failed. We analyze constitutional and legal documents and we argue that the content of a constitutional right to water is not homogeneous, but has a wide range of meanings. For instance, the right to water can include increased access to drinking water, environmental protection and limitations to natural resources exploitation, equity in accessibility to water sources, and infrastructure for water and sanitation. We show that water protection varies from one country to another, depending on factors like political agenda and coalitions, legal mobilization, social movements, and interest groups (e.g. mining companies, supporters of water supply privatization, and environmental organizations). We analyze these findings in light of the literature on constitutional reform, rights’ protection, and the role courts in Latin America.

 

Communities and Commons

January, Thursday 10th  ; 9h00 – 11h00

Moderator : Sarah Botton, AFD

Dam Removal as a New Imaginary for Rivers: an Hydrosocial Territory Perspective
Ludovic Drapier

Dam removal has imposed on the environmental agenda as an important and palpable symbol of river restoration in several countries globally (Garcia de Leaniz, 2008; Lejon, Renöfält et Nilsson, 2009) including in the USA (Doyle, Harbor et Stanley, 2003; Hart et al., 2002; Magilligan et al., 2016; Warner et Pejchar, 2001). The globalization of this river management framework raises questions about the mechanisms underlying it and its implementation at the local level. We propose here to analyses this global movement through the lens of “hydrosocial territory”. This notion invites to consider the material and symbolic dimension of the water space (river, valley, basin, etc.) within which social and economic activities, cultural and recreational practices, both individual and collective, take place (Boelens et al., 2016; Hommes et al, 2016). Similarly to Rodríguez-de-Francisco et Boelens (2016), we understand hydrosocial territory as discursive representations, i.e. as a socio-cultural construction built around hydro-social relationships. These representations can overlap on a single space and be supported by a diversity of actors acting at different scales and with unequal powers (Hommes et al., 2016).
Our in-depths interviews with dam removal advocates informed us on this new form of territoriality. Promotion of idealized free-flowing rivers relies on historic reference to pristine rivers and enrollment of non-humans such as migratory fish. This discourse highlights logical and fixed links in the definition of dams as a “problem” in the functioning of hydrosystems and results in making dam removal as the only rational, scientifically-grounded decision to take. All these elements contribute to the formation of new hydro-social territories focused on free-flowing rivers in which human activities are considered to disrupt a natural balance, leaning towards a form of “purification” (Latour, 1991). Free-flowing river policy draws on other policies such as ecosystem services (Auerbach et al., 2014), public safety (Drapier et al., 2017) or economic rejuvenation (Purrinton, 2016) which actually reinforce and legitimize it.
Building on two local examples in the US characterized by forms of engagement towards local communities, river protection and environmental awareness, we highlight two different strategies regarding this discourse at the local level. In New Jersey, the Musconetcong Watershed Association aligned with the vision of the promoters. One of the key stakes was to modify the perspectives of inhabitants regarding dams to make it coherent with the dominant representation (“they think of it [the dam] as their waterfall. They think of that as an aesthetic feature of the town. And it’s hard for them to understand that the river as it should be is also an aesthetic feature”). This can be understood as a form of “territorial governmentalization” which aims to align local behavior with new categories (Boelens et al., 2016). The other case in the Wood-Pawcatuck Watershed in southern New England illustrates a watershed association which was not prone to entirely embrace this agenda because of local concerns. It thus forced the federal agencies to modify their plan in order to incorporate local demands (“we don’t want to accept money from your agency if you’re not receptive to modifying the plans and the intentions based on the input of the community”).
The analysis of two case studies in the United States illustrates how an overlap between of diverging imaginary territories can be negotiated at the local scale. Both cases demonstrate that the implementation of a restoration policy reflects power relations between networks that integrate both human and non-human actors and that are deployed on different scales and that these power relations are not necessarily expressed in the conflict.

 

Sociology of Water Governance in Brazil: Agents, Discourses and Institutions
Rodrigo Martins

The technical and scientific innovations of the last hundred years notwithstanding, industrialized societies are paradoxically confronted, in the early 21st century, with a problem that characterized them at the end of the 19th century, namely, ensuring access to clean drinking water. From a “common good” to the condition of scarce commodity, this natural resource continues to be the target of social resignifications. This paper will argue that, in essence, these resignifications reveal political and cultural conflicts which, in some contexts, go so far as to overshadow the immediate situation of physical scarcity.
This article seeks to present a sociological interpretation of the Brazilian experience of the resignification of water through the efforts of economic designation of this resource. This resignification will be problematized in terms of its relationship with the conceptual repertoire of neoclassical environmental economics concerning the efficient allocation of scarce resources.
To this end, we focus on cases of arrangements involving the agents that occupied key positions in the reformulation of water governance structures in Brazil. These cases were constructed based on a documentary survey and field research carried out between 2009 and 2015. The documentary survey involved, among others, searches in archives of the National Water Agency, of the national and state water resources councils, of the National Council on Water Resources and of River Basin Committees. The field research consisted of semi-structured interviews of agents of the aforementioned arrangements.
The analytical frameworks of the interpretation developed here deal with two conceptual fields. The first one refers to the figurational sociology proposed by Elias (1991, 2001) and its focus on configurational levels, relational hierarchies and interdependence as a specific arrangement of social forces. The second conceptual field involves the critique of universalism in modern science and of certain economic hypotheses of social conduct – hypotheses that, in large part, guide the new set of water related problems in the country. From this field, the study will use as conceptual tools the interpretations formulated by Bourdieu (1982, 2000) about the authority of the scientific concept and its naturalization, as well as the consolidation of economic matrices of perception, knowledge and recognition of the social world.
The results of this study reveal that the logic of maintaining the hegemony of an economic-environmental discourse is based not only on its argumentative force but also, and fundamentally, on the circle of believers with dispositional resources and interests in the recursive manipulation of this discourse. Thus, in the case of Brazil, the reproduction of the discourse of rational water management is also related to an international and multilateral institutional order that involved, for instance, the cooperation of different research and management groups of the World Bank. But this reproduction is also and above all due to the recognition of the agents in the discourse (such as managers, technicians, engineers and/or economists) and to the ability of these agents to transform this discourse into a power resource, shaping situations of social distinction in the new democratic and participatory water management in the country.

 

Cochabamba: la emergencia de servicios de agua alterntativos y su efecto territorial.
Juan Cabrera

The characteristics of social production of habitat in Latin America have been studied from different perspectives and dimensions, however, attention to community water management as a factor of urbanization and fragmentation has been reduced. This notion does not refer only to the provision of the service, but to the generation of a series of infrastructures and services linked to social production developed through socio-spatial strategies of community water operators (at the same time neighborhoods), which define the characteristics and rhythm of the urbanization process, in addition to scenarios of dislocation of physical-social relationships around water access and control.

 

Water Commons in Bolivia Twenty Years After Cochabamba: Resistance, Efficiency and Topicality of a Community Alternative
Claude Le Gouill, Andrés Fonseca Zubieta, Marcelo Pérez Mercado

Bolivia has become a world reference for the defense of common goods since the “water war” of Cochabamba 2000 around the slogan “Water is our Carajo!” and the defense of community systems and the “uses and local customs” (Perreault 2006, Linsalata 2015) This water management emerges from an old community tradition (Hylton and Thomson, 2010), based on the experience of the peasant-indigenous or mining communities, as the sociologist Raquel Gutiérrez Aguilar said, intellectual activist who accompanied this struggle from Cochabamba, a “popular community” horizon was created in Bolivia that refers to “collective practices of production of the common” and reproduction of the community and its well-being (Gutiérrez Aguilar, 2015). Almost 20 years after the first “water war”, we will propose an analysis of the modes of community organization of water in Bolivia from the case of Sacaba, a municipality bordering Cochabamba municipality, and their capacity to brave social and environmental “shocks”.

 

A political anthropology and commons theory analysis of watershed management experiences in France, Brazil and Argentina.
Patrick Laigneau

This paper describes a gradual building and transformation of a political understanding of water agencies and basin committees by the first author. Fascinated by these organizations, Patrick Laigneau discovered in 1998 the limitations imposed on them by the French government who criticized and considered suppressing them. Stepping back, he spent two years in Africa, and then moved to Brazil where he followed a cursus in anthropology. He met with very different basin committees from those he knew, leading him to formulate his doctoral research project: revisiting the political history of the French water agencies and committees, looking at how the pioneers of this institutions had tried to solve the same issues raised by stakeholders in new basin committees and water agencies in Brazil.
With French and Brazilian colleagues Bernard Barraqué and Rosa Formiga-Johnsson, he investigates how the French Water Agencies and Committees have worked to institutionalize water management as a common pool resource since the 1960s, although it has not always been recognized as such, and how similar organizations created in Brazil in the 1990s attempt to do the same.
The paper explains the researchers’ choice to use the commons paradigm, presents some of the results of the comparative analysis of participatory watershed management in France and Brazil, and the research perspectives allowed by the inclusion of a new case study in Argentina.

 

 

Speakers

Paul Robbins is the director of the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he guides the institute in serving as a world leader in addressing rapid global environmental change. Robbins’ research addresses questions spanning conservation conflicts, urban ecology, and environment and health interactions. He has done extensive fieldwork in rural India, on the politics surrounding forestry and wildlife conservation in Rajasthan, India, as well as on the wealth of biodiversity (frogs, birds and mammals) in commercial coffee and rubber plantations throughout south India. A UW-Madison alumnus with a bachelor’s degree in anthropology, Paul Robbins also holds a master’s degree and doctorate in geography, both from Clark University. He was raised in Denver, Colorado.

January, Thursday 10th

Place : Amphitéâtre, IHEAL
28, rue Saint-Guillaume, 75007 Paris

9 h 00 –11 h 00  Communities and Commons

Moderator : Sarah Botton, AFD


Dam Removal as a New Imaginary for Rivers: an Hydrosocial Territory Perspective
Ludovic DrapierLaboratoire de Géographie Physique UMR CNRS 859
Université Paris Est Créteil.

Sociology of Water Governance in Brazil: Agents, Discourses and Institutions S
Rodrigo Martins, Conseil National de la recherche brésilien (CNPq)
Université fédérale de São Carlos.

Cochabamba: la emergencia de servicios de agua alterntativos y su efecto territorial.
Juan Cabrera, Universidad Privada Boliviana. Universite de Liège & Université Libre de Bruxelles.

Water Commons in Bolivia Twenty Years After Cochabamba: Resistance, Efficiency and Topicality of a Community Alternative .
Claude Le Gouill, CREDA –  iGLOBES-CNRS/University of Arizona.

A Political Anthropology and Commons Theory Analysis of Watershed Management Experiences in France, Brazil and Argentina.
Patrick Laigneau, chercheur consultant indépendant

11 h 00 – 11 h 30 Coffee Break

11 h 30 – 13 h 30 From Water Law to the Right to Water

Moderator : Rutgerd Boelens, University of Wageningen

From Scarcity to the State of Exception in Water Government in the Americas. A Comparative Approach
Liber Martin, Université Nationale de Cuyo – CONICET

Water Accumulation by Dispossession in Chile: an Analysis of Geo-Legal Devices
Chloé Nicolas-Artero, CREDA

Water in the Americas : Crossover Perspectives in Social Sciences. The Challenges of Access to Water and the Right to Water (legal Pluralism, Indigenous Rights)
Ana Gendron, chercheure associée CREDA

Constitutional Reforms for the Enshrinement of the Right to Water: Opportunities and Limitations in Brazil, Colombia and Peru
Lara Côrtes et Camila Gianella, Chr. Michelsen Institute & University of Kansas, Université des Ande

13 h 30 – 14 h 30 Lunch*

14 h 30 – 16 h 30 Water Conflicts and Local Knowledge

Moderator : Carine Chavarochette, CREDA

Territorio y Poder en los Andes: una aproximación a las Luchas de Comunidades Indígenas de los Andes del Norte de Ecuador.
Pablo Ortiz, Université Salesiana d’Equateur

L’eau, la frontière et l’ananas : déplacement des conflits pour l’eau dans le bassin transfrontalier du fleuve San Juan (Costa-Rica-Nicaragua).
Lucile Medina et Tania Rodriguez, UMR 5281 ART-Dev – Université Paul Valéry & UMR 5281 ART-Dev – Université du Costa Rica

From Hope to Conflict: Inequality in Access to Water by Farmers Resettled by the São Francisco River in the State of Pernambuco – Brazil. E
Ana Carolina Aguerri Borges, ODEPP – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

Water, conflicts and patrimony in Mexico: the struggles of peasant communities against urbanization .
Jade Latargere, chercheure associée CEMCA (USR 337 América Latina)

Women, water and coal: sociocultural transformations in the Wayuu of the Colombian Guajira .
Inés Calvo ValenzuelaEHESS-LAS

17h 00 – Apéritif dinatoire at IHEAL*

18h 30 – 21 h 00 Soirée « Mines et eau »

Program Modification. Place : IHEAL, 28 rue Saint Guillaume, 75007 Paris

Documentary Screening

La Hija de La Laguna, réalisé par Ernesto Cabellos (Peru, 2015)

D

Moderator : Nicolas Richard, chercheur CNRS-CREDA

Commented by:

Antonia Zambra,
Universidad Diego Portales
Lickanantai water knowledge and it recent transformation in a context of social and environmental change (Atacama Desert, Chile).

Kyra Grieco,
EHESS
From the « Pacha-» to the « Yaku-mama » ? Feminisation and indigenisation of water in a context of social mobilisation against mining


 

*Reserved for speakers and scientific committe

January, Wednesday 9th


15 h 00 – 18 h 00 Inauguration

Place : Salle Bourjac, Université Sorbonne-Nouvelle Paris III
17, rue de la Sorbonne, 75005 Paris

Introduction

Olivier Compagnon, director of Institut des Hautes Etudes de l’Amérique Latine
Bénédicte Gazon, Representative of the Agence Française de Développement
Sébastien Velut, member of the scientific commitee and organization committee

Inaugural Conference

The Political Ecology of Water: Justice, Power, and Flows
Paul Robbins, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Cocktail

January, Friday 11th

Place : Amphitéâtre, IHEAL
28, rue Saint-Guillaume, 75007 Paris

9h00 – 11h00 Water Access in Cities : a Question of Governance

Moderator : Graciela Schneier-Madanes, CREDA

Agua para todos o agua para quienes? La accesibilidad al servicio de redes en la Buenos Aires hidrica del siglo XX.
Melina Tobias and Andrea Catenazzi, Université de Buenos-Aires CONICET

When Acces to Water is Commodified: Mexico a Case Study.
Joshua Greene, Université de Genève

Crise de l’eau de Flient, quelle gestion de l’eau dans les villes moyennes en déclin?
Guillaume Poiret, Université Paris-Est Créteil- Val de Marne, Créteil Lab’Urba

Les politiques et les pratiques de gestion des zones d’approvisionnement en eau des territoires urbains tributaires les cas des villes de Durango (Mexique) et Bogota (Colombie).
Alexandra Angéliaume, Alvaro Gutierrez and Maria Alarcon,
GEODE Toulouse, CIMAV, Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas de Bogot

11 h 00 – 11 h 30 Coffee Break

11 h 30 – 13 h 30 The Emergence of Alternative Water Policies

Moderator :  Franck Poupeau, CREDA

What Socio-ecological Transition for Water Management in Lima?
Jeremy Robert, Institut Français d’Etudes Andines

Water Bureaucracies Challenged by Alternative Water Management in the Urban Peripheries of Mexico
Amaël Marchand, LATTS

Water Conservation in Arizona Desert Cities : «Fixing» the Water Supply Issue or Questionning the Oasis Lifestyle?
Anne-Lise Boyer and Brian O’Neill, ENS Lyon & CREDA

The Social Determinants of Water Conflicts
Joan Cortinas and Lala Razafimahefa, UMI iGLONES CNRS – UMR 5281 ART-De

13 h 30 – 14 h 30 Lunch*

14 h 30 – 16 h 30 Operational Approaches and Social Sciences

Moderator : Sébastien Velut, CREDA

Provision of Ecosystem Services in Water Supply Catchment Perimeters for Integrated Environmental Management of Water Resources
Vanessa Cançado and Nilo Nascimiento, Université Féderale Minas Gerais

Diagnostic Methodology Studies in Urban Basin Areas: The Analysis of Landscape Units in the Neighborhoods of Pompeya (City of Buenos Aires) and Valentin Alsina (Buenos Aires Province) in the Metropolitan Area of ​​Buenos Aires. The Riachuelo as a Place of Interaction Between its Inhabitants. 
Mitchell de Sousa,Université de Buenos-Aires

The hydrosocial approach and its cycles in Latin America: use, abuse and a possible way through the maze
Robin Larsimont and Facundo MartinUniversidad de Cuyo et CONICET

Reconnecting Throught Water or the One with the Longest Straw Takes it All. Groundwtaer Self-Management in a Green Californian Desert.
Birgit Müller and Elise Boutié,IIAC / LAIOS (CNRS/EHESS) & EHESS

17 h 00 Conference Conclusions

Edith Kauffer, CIESAS – Iméra

Rutgerd Boelens, University of Wageningen

 

 

*Reserved for speakers and scientific commitee